From Lund University in the UK: “Impacts of climate change on snow, water, ice and permafrost in the Arctic,” was compiled by about 200 researchers for the Arctic Councils basis for their part of the IPCC 2014 report.
The last five years in the Arctic have been the warmest five years since record keeping began in the late 19th century. “There is no indication that permafrost will not continue to thaw.” said Margarett Johansson. She continued in the Lund Press Release: “The changes we see are dramatic. And they are not coincidental. The trends are unequivocal and deviate from the norm when compared with a longer term perspective.”
Johansson also tells us that: “Our data shows that there is significantly more [carbon in permafrost]than previously thought. There is approximately double the amount of carbon in the permafrost as there is in the atmosphere today.”
This work tells us that, in the Arctic there is less snow, faster thawing tundra, faster melt snow in the spring and a longer warm season. The press release continues: “The effects of climate change in the Arctic are already here. And the changes are taking place significantly faster than previously thought. Johansson concludes: “The changes we see are dramatic. And they are not coincidental. The trends are unequivocal and deviate from the norm when compared with a longer term perspective.”
Lund University UK, Press Release http://www.lunduniversity.lu.se/o.o.i.s?news_item=5580&id=24890